Glossaire du Commerce International


ABI – Automated Brokerage Interface

Is a system available to U.S. Customs Brokers with the computer capabilities and customs certification to transmit and exchange customs entries and other information, facilitating prompt release of imported cargo.

Acceptance

A time draft (or bill of exchange) which the drawee has accepted and is unconditionally obligated to pay at maturity. Drawee’s act in receiving a draft and thus entering into the obligation to pay its value at maturity. An agreement to purchase goods under specified terms.

Add Hoc Charter

A one-off charter operated at the necessity of an airline or charterer.

Ad Valorem (“according to the value”)

A fixed percentage of the value of goods that is used to calculate customs duties and taxes.

Admirality Court

Is a   court having jurisdiction over maritime questions pertaining to ocean transport, including contracts, charters, collisions, and cargo damages.

Advance Against Documents

:

Load made on the security of the documents covering the shipment.

Advising Bank:

A bank that receives a letter of credit from an issuing bank, verifies its authenticity, and forwards the original letter of credit to the exporter without obligation to pay.

Advisory Capacity

A term indicating that a shipper’s agent or representative is not empowered to make definite decisions or adjustment without the approval of the group or individual represented.

Affiliate

Is a company that controls, or is controlled by another company, or is one of two or more commonly controlled companies.

Airfreightment:

An agreement by a steamship line to provide cargo space on a vessel at a specified time and for a specified price to accommodate an exporter or importer, who then becomes liable for payment even though he is later unable to make the shipment.

Agency Agreement

The steamship line appoints the steamship agent and defines the specific duties and areas of responsibility of that agent.

Air Cargo Agent

Is a   type of freight forwarder who specializes in air cargo and acts for airlines that pay him a fee (usually 5%). He is registered with the International Air Transport Association, IATA (See also Air Freight Forwarder; Forwarder, Freight Forwarder, Foreign Freight Forwarder).

Air Freight Forwarder

Is a type of freight forwarder who specializes in air cargo. He usually consolidates the air shipments of various exporters, charging them for actual weight and deriving his profit by paying the airline the lower consolidated rate. He issues his own air waybills to the exporters, is licensed by the CAB (Civil Aeronautics Board) and has the status of an indirect air carrier (See also Air Cargo Agent, Forwarder, Freight Forwarder, Foreign Freight Forwarder.)

Air Waybill

A bill of landing that covers both international and domestic flights transporting goods to a specified destination. This is a non-negotiable documents of air transport  that serves as a receipt for the shipper, indicating that the carrier has accepted the goods listed and obligates itself to carry the consignment to the airport of destination according to specified conditions.

AITA

International Air Transport Association, IATA, (French, German).

All-Risk Clause

Is an insurance provision that all loss or damage to goods is insured except that of inherent vice (self caused). (See All Risk Insurance).

All Risk Insurance

Is a clause included in marine insurance policies to cover loss and damage from external causes, such as fire, collision, pilferage, etc. but not against innate flaws in the goods, such as decay, germination, nor against faulty packaging, improper packing/ loading or loss of market, nor against war, strikes, riots and civil commotions (See Marine Insurance)

Alongside

A phrase referring to the side of a ship. Goods to be delivered “alongside” are to be placed on the dock or barge within reach of the transport ship’s tackle so that they can be loaded abroad the ship.

Arbitration Clause

Is a standard clause to be included in the contracts of exporters and importers, as suggested by the American Arbitration Association. It states that any controversy or claim will be settled by arbitration in accordance with the rules of the American Arbitration Association.

Assignment

The transfer of the rights, duties, responsibilities and/or benefits of an agreement, contract, or financial instrument to third party.

Assignment of Proceeds

A stipulation within a letter of credit in which some or all of the proceeds are assigned from the original beneficiary to one or more additional beneficiaries.

A.T.

American Terms (Marine Insurance) A term used to differentiate between the conditions of American Policies from those of other nations, principally England.

Automated Brokerage Interface (ABI)

An electronic system allowing customhouse brokers and importers to interface via computer with the US Customs Service for transmitting entry and entry summary data on imported merchandise.

Automated Commercial System (ACS)

The electronic system of the US Customs Service, encompassing a variety of industry sectors, that permits on-line access to information in selected areas.

Automated Manifest System (AMS)

The electronic system allowing a manifest inventory to be transmitted to the US Customs Service data center by carrier, port authority or service center computers.

BAA

British Airports Authority

BACA

Baltic Air Charter Association

Balance of Trade

The difference between a country’s total imports and exports; if exports exceed imports, favorable balance of trade exists, if not, a trade deficit is said to exist.

Barter

Trade in which merchandise is exchanged directly for other merchandise without use of money. Barter is an important means of trade with countries using currency that is not readily convertible.

B/B

(See Break-Bulk Cargo)

Belly Cargo

Freight accommodation below the main deck.

Beneficiary

A firm or person on whom a letter of credit has been drawn. The beneficiary is usually the seller or exporter.

Bermuda Agreement

An agreement concluded in 1946 between the U.K. and the U.S., designed to regulate future international air traffic. Most governments accept its principles and follow it inter alia by limiting traffic rights on international routes to one or two carriers.

Berth

Is the place beside a pier, quay or wharf where a vessel can be loaded or discharged.

Berth Liner Service

Is a regular scheduled steamship line with regular published schedules (port of call ) from and to defined trade areas.

Berth or Liner Terms

Is an expression covering assessment of ocean freight rates generally implying that loading and discharging expenses will be for ship owner’s account, and usually apply from the end of ship’s tackle in port of loading to the end of ship’s tackle in port of discharge.

Bill of Lading

A document that establishes the terms of a contract between a shipper and a transportation company under which freight is to be moved between specified points for a specified charge. Usually prepared by  the shipper on forms issued by the carrier, it serves as a document of title, contract of carriage, and a receipt for goods. Also see Air Waybill and Ocean Bill of Lading.

Bonded Warehouse

A warehouse storage area or manufacturing facility in which imported goods may be stored or processed without payment of customs duties.

Brussels Tariff Nomenclature Number (BTN)

The customs tariff number used by most European nations. The United States does not use the BTN, but a similar system known as the Harmonize Tariff Schedule.

CAA

Is the Civil Aviation Authority. Government body responsible for regulating U.K. airlines.

Cabotage

Is where cargo is carried on what is essentially a domestic flight and therefore not subject to international agreements that fix set rates. Cabotage rates are negotiable between shipper and airline and apply on flights within a country and to its overseas territories.

CAD Can have two meanings in the industry

CAD

The acronym meaning “cash against documents,” a method of payment for goods in which documents transferring title are given to the buyer upon payment of cash to an intermediary acting for the seller.

CAD/CAM

Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing.

Cage

The transporting of goods by truck to or from a vessel, aircraft, or bonded warehouse, all under customs custody.

Cargo

Is merchandise/commodities/freight carried by means of transportation.

Cargo Receipt

Is a receipt of cargo for shipment by a consolidator (used in ocean freight).

Carne

A customs document permitting the holder to carry or send merchandise temporarily into certain foreign countries (for display, demonstration, or similar purpose) without paying duties or posting bonds.

Carriers(s) Containers or Shipper(s) Containers

The term Carrier(s) Container(s) or Shipper(s) Container(s) means containers over which the carrier or the shipper has control either by ownership or by the acquisition thereof under lease or rental from container companies or container suppliers or from similar sources. Carriers are prohibited from purchasing, leasing or renting shipper owned containers.

Carrier, Common

A public or privately owned firm or corporation that transports the goods of others over land, sea, or through the air, for a stated freight rate. By government regulation, a common carrier is required to carry all goods offered if accommodations are available and the established rate is paid.

Cartel

Is an association of several independent national or international business organizations that regulates competition by controlling the prices, the production, or the marketing of a product or an industry.

Cash in Advance (C.I.A.)

Payment for goods in which the price is paid in full before shipment is made. This method is usually used only for small purchases or when the goods are built to order.

Cash Against Documents (CAD)

Payment for goods in which a commission house, or other intermediary, transfers title documents to the buyer upon payment in cash.

C.C.E.F.

Is a Customs Centralized Examination Facility.

Certificate of Analysis

Is a certificate required by some countries as proof of the quality and composition of food products or pharmaceuticals. The required analysis may be made by a private or government health agency. The certificate must be legalized by a foreign consul of the country concerned, as is the case with such similar certificates as the phytosanitary certificate.

Certificate of Inspection

A document certifying that the goods were in apparent good condition immediately prior to shipment.

Certificate of Manufacture

A statement in which a producer specifies where his goods were manufactured, certifies that manufacturing has been completed, and confirms that the goods are at the buyer’s disposal.

Certificate of Origin

A statement signed by the exporter, or his agent, and attested to by a local Chamber of Commerce, indicating that the goods being shipped, or a major percentage of them, originated and were produced in the exporter’s country.

CES

Is a Customs Examination Station

C&F

Is a quoted price includes cost of goods and freight.

C & I

Is a quoted price includes cost of goods and insurance.

CFS (Container Freight Station)

The term CFS at loading port means the location designated by carriers for the receiving of cargo to be packed into containers by the carrier. At discharge ports, the term CFS means the bonded location designated by carriers in the port area for unpacking and delivery of cargo.

CFS/CFS (Pier to Pier)

The term CFS/CFS means cargo delivered by break-bulk to Carrier’s CFS to be packed by Carrier into containers and to be unpacked by Carrier from the container at Carrier’s destination port CFS.

CFS/CY (Pier to House)

The term CFS/CY means cargo delivered break-bulk to Carrier’s CFS to be packed by Carrier into containers and accepted by consignee at Carrier’s CY and unpacked by the consignee off Carrier’s premises, all at consignee’s risk and expense.

CFS CHARGE (Container Freight Charge)

The term CFS Charge means the charge assessed for services performed at the loading or discharging port in packing or unpacking of cargo into/from containers at CFS.

CFS Receiving Service

The term “CFS Receiving Services” means the service performed at loading port in receiving and packing cargo into containers from CFS to CY or shipside. “CFS Receiving Services” referred herein are restricted to the following

  1. Moving empty containers from CY to CFS
  2. Drayage of loaded containers from CFS to CY and/or ship’s tackle
  3. Tallying
  4. Issuing dock receipt/shipping order
  5. Physical movement of cargo into, out of and within CFS
  6. Stuffing, sealing and marking containers
  7. Storage
  8. Ordinary sorting and stacking
  9. Preparing carrier’s internal container load plan

CIF (cost, insurance and freight)

Seller is responsible for inland freight, ocean/air freight, and marine/air insurance to the port of final entry in the buyer’s country. The buyer is responsible for inland transportation to his or her location.

Chargeable Kilo

Rate for goods where volume exceeds six cubic metres to the tonne.

Charter

Originally meant a flight where a shipper contracted hire of an aircraft from an airline. Has usually come to mean any non-scheduled commercial service.

Charter Party

The contract between the owner of a ship and the individual or company chartering it. Among other specifications, the contract usually stipulates the exact obligations of the ship-owner (loading the goods, carrying the goods to a certain point, returning to the charterer with other goods, etc.); or it provides for an outright leasing of the vessel to the charterer, who then is responsible for his own loading and delivery. In either case, the charter party sets forth the exact conditions and requirements agreed upon by both sides.

Charter party Bill of Lading

A bill of lading issued under a charter party. It is not acceptable by banks under letters of credit unless so authorized in the credit.

Chassis

A wheel assemble including bogies constructed to accept mounting of containers.

CIA

The acronym meaning “cash in advance,” a method of payment for goods whereby buyer pays seller in advance of shipment of goods.

C.I.F.

Is a quoted price includes cost of goods, insurance and freight.

C.I.T.E.S.

Committee on International Trade of Endangered Species.

Class Rates

A class of goods or commodities is a large grouping of various items under one general heading. All items in the group make up a class. The freight rates that apply to all items in the class are called class rates.

Classification

Is a customs term. The placement of an item under the correct number in the customs tariff for duty purposes. At times this procedure becomes highly complicated; it is not uncommon for importers to resort to litigation over the correct duty to be assessed by the customs on a given item.

Claused Bill of Lading

Is a bill of lading which has exemptions to the receipt of merchandise in “apparent good order” noted.

Clean Bill of Lading

Is a bill of lading which covers goods received in “apparent good order and condition” and without qualification.

Clean Draft

Is a draft to which no documents have been attached.

cm

Centimeters

CNS

Cargo Network Services, an IATA company. See IATA.

Collective Paper

All documents (commercial invoices, bills of lading, etc.) submitted to a buyer for the purpose of receiving payment for a shipment.

Commercial Risk

Risk carried by the exporter (unless insurance is secured) that the foreign buyer may not be able to pay for goods delivered on an open account basis.

Confirmed Letter of Credit

A letter of credit, issued by a foreign bank, with validity confirmed  by a U.S. bank. An exporter who requires a confirmed letter of credit from the buyer is assured of payment by the U.S. bank even if the foreign buyer or the foreign bank defaults.

Conference

A group of vessel operators joined together for the purpose of establishing freight rates.

  • RoRo/Container Vessel – Ship designed to accommodate containers and roll-on roll-off cargo. It can be self sustaining.
  • RoRo/Container/Break-bulk Vessel – Designated to accommodate three types of cargo, usually self sustaining.

Commercial Code

A published code designed to reduce the total number of words required in a cablegram.

Commodity Specialist

An official authorized by the U.S. Treasury to determine proper tariff and value of imported goods.

Consignee

Person or firm to whom goods are shipped under a bill of landing.

Consular Declaration

A formal statement, made to the consul of a foreign country, describing goods to be shipped.

Consular Invoice

A document, required by some foreign countries, describing a shipment of goods and showing information such as the consignor, consignee, and value of the shipment. Certified by consular official of the foreign, it is used by the country’s customs official to verify the value, quantity, and nature of the shipment.

Combi

Is an aircraft with pallet or container capacity on its main deck as well as in its belly holds.

Combination Vessels

Container/Break-bulk vessel – this type of ship accommodates both container and break-bulk cargo. It can be either self sustaining or non-self sustaining.

Commercial Invoice

An itemized list of goods shipped, usually included among an exporter’s collection papers.

Common Carrier:

A firm or individual that transports persons or goods for compensation.

Confirmed Letter of Credit

A letter of credit, issued by a foreign bank with validity confirmed by a U.S. bank.

Confiscation

The taking and holding of private property by a government or an agency acting for a government. Compensation may or may not be given to the owner of the property.

Consignee

The individual or company to whom a seller or sipper sends merchandise and who, upon presentation of necessary documents, is recognized as merchandise owner for the purpose of declaring and paying customs duties.

Consignee Marks

A symbol laced on packages for identification purposes; generally consisting of a triangle, square, circle, diamond, cross, with letters and/or numbers as well as port of discharge.

Consignment

Is the physical transfer of goods from a seller (consignor) with whom the title remains, to another legal entity (consignee) who acts as a selling agent, selling the goods and remitting the new proceeds to the consignor.

Consignor

A term used to describe any person who consigns goods to himself or to another party in a bill of lading or equivalent document. A consignor might be the owner of the goods, or a freight forwarder who consigns goods on behalf of his principal.

Consolidated Shipment

An arrangement whereby various shippers pool their boxed goods on the same shipment, sharing the total weight charge for the shipment.

Consolidator

An agent which brings together a number of shipments for one destination to qualify for preferential airline rates.

Consortium

The name for an agreement under which several nations or nationals (usually corporations) of more than one nation, join together for a common purpose. It could be for management or exploitation of a natural resource, as in the case of some international petroleum consortiums.

Consul

A government official residing in a foreign country, charged with representing the interests of his or her country and its nationals.

Consular Documents

Special forms signed by the consul of a country to which cargo is destined.

Consular Invoice

A document, required by some foreign countries, describing a shipment of goods and showing information such as the consignor, consignee, and value of the shipment. Certified by a consular official of the foreign country, it is used by the country’s customs officials to verify the value, quantity and nature of the shipment.

Container

The term container means a single rigid, non-disposable dry cargo, insulated, temperature controlled flatrack, vehicle rack portable liquid tank, or open top container without wheels or bogies attached, having not less than 350 cubic feet capacity, having a closure or permanently hinged door that allows ready access to the cargo (closure or permanently hinged door not applicable to flatrack vehicle rack or portable liquid tank). All types of containers will have constructions, fittings and fastenings able to withstand without permanent distortion, all the stresses that may be applied in normal service use of continuous transportation. All containers must bear manufacturer’s specifications.

Container Ship

Ocean going ship designed to carry containers both internally and on deck. Some are self sustaining.

Containerization

Is a concept for the ultimate unitizing of cargo used by both steamship lines and air cargo lines. Containers allow a greater amount of cargo protection from weather, damage, and theft.

Containers (Air Cargo)

Many types of air cargo containers are offered: The containers are designed in various sizes and irregular shapes to conform to the inside dimensions of a specific aircraft.

Containers (Ocean)

Are designed to be moved inland on its own chassis and can be loaded at the shippers plant for shipment overseas. Basic types of containers are; dry van, open top, half high, hi cube, flat rock, tank container, refrigerated container, insulated container, tilting container. Average outside dimensions are generally 20, 35, and 40 feet in length, 8 feet wide and 8 feet high standard.

Continuous Bond

Is an annual customs bond insuring compliance with all regulations and requirements.

Contract Rate

Is a charge levied by carriers selling capacity forward over a given route to a shipper of forwarder; the client is therefore assured of capacity, which must be paid for regardless of load carried.

Coordinating Committee for Export Controls (COCOM)

An informal group of 15 western countries established to prevent the export of certain strategic products to potentially hostile nations.

Correspondent Bank

A bank that, in its own country, handles the business of a foreign bank.

Countertrad

Is a reciprocal trading arrangement, which includes a variety of transactions involving two or more parties.

Countervailing Duties

Is a special duties imposed on imports to offset the benefits of subsidies to producers or exporters of the exporting country.

Credit Risk Insurance

Insurance designed to cover risks of nonpayment for delivered goods.

Customs Bonded Warehouse

Is a  warehouse where imported goods may be stored for a total of three years without the payment of duty or taxes.

Customhouse Broke

An individual or firm licensed to enter and clear goods through Customs.

Customs Court

Is the court to which importers might appeal or protest decisions made by Customs officers.

Customs Tariff

Is a schedule of charges assessed by the federal government on imported goods.

Customs Union

Is an agreement between two or more countries in which they arrange to abolish tariffs and other import restrictions on each other’s goods and establish a common tariff for the imports of all other countries.

CWO

The acronym meaning “cash with order,” a method of payment for goods where cash is paid at the time of order and the transaction becomes binding on both buyer and seller.

CY (Container Yard)

The term CY means the location designated by Carrier in the port terminal area for receiving, assembling, holding, storing and delivering containers, and where containers may be picked up by shippers or re-delivered by consignees. No container yard (CY) shall be a shipper’s, consignee’s, NVOCC’s, or a forwarder’s place of business, unless otherwise provided.

CY/CFS (House to Pier)

The term CY/CFS means containers packed by shipper of carrier’s premises and delivered by shipper to Carrier’s CY, all at shipper’s risk and expense and unpacked by Carrier at the destination port CFS.

CY/CY (House to House)

The term CY/CY means containers packed by shipper off Carrier’s premises and delivered by shipper to Carrier’s CY and accepted by consignee a t Carrier’s CY and unpacked by consignee off Carrier’s premises, all at the risk and expense of cargo.

Dangerous Goods

Articles or substance capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety or property, and that ordinarily require special attention when being transported.

DAT

Dangerous articles tariff.

Date Draf

Draft that matures in a specified number of days after the date it is issued, without regard to the date of Acceptance. See Draft.

DCA

Department of Civil Aviation. Commonly used term to denote the government department of any foreign country that is responsible for aviation regulation and granting traffic rights.

DDP

Delivered duty paid. Also known as “free domicile.”

DDU

Delivered duty unpaid. Reflects the emergence of “door-to-door” intermodal or courier contracts or carriage where only the destination customs duty and taxes (if any) are paid by consignee.

Dead Leg

Is a sector flown without payload.

Dead Freight

Is freight charges paid by the charterer of vessel for the contracted space, which is left partially unoccupied.

Deck Cargo

Is cargo carried on deck rather than stowed under deck. On deck carriage is required for certain commodities, such as explosives.

Deferred Payment Credit

Type of letter of credit providing for payment some time after presentation of shipping documents by exporter.

Deferred Rebate

The return of a portion of the freight charges by a carrier or a conference shipper in exchange for the shipper giving all or most of his shipments to the carrier or conference over a specified period of time (usually 6 months). Payment of the rate is deferred for a further similar period, during which the shipper must continue to give all or most of his shipments to the rebating carrier or conference. The shipper thus earns a further rebate which will not, however, be paid without an additional period of exclusive or almost exclusive patronage with the carrier of conference. In this way, the shipper becomes tied to the rebating carrier or conference. Although, the deferred rebate system is illegal in U.S. foreign commerce, it generally is accepted in the ocean trade between foreign countries.

Demurrage

A penalty for exceeding free time allowed for loading or unloading at a pier or freight terminal. Also a charge for undue detention of transportation equipment or carriers in port while loading or unloading.

Density

Density means pounds per cubic foot. The cubage of loose articles or pieces, or packaged articles of a rectangular, elliptical or square shape on one plane shall be determined by multiplying the greatest straight line dimensions of length, width and depth in inches, including all projections, and dividing the total by 1728 (to obtain cubic feet). The density is the weight of the article divided by the cubic feet thus obtained.

DEQ

Delivered ex quay/duty paid.

Destination Control Statement

Any of various statements that the U.S. government requires to be displayed on export shipments and that specify the destination for which export of the shipment has been authorized.

D.F.

Dead Freight

DGR

Dangerous Goods Requirement.

Dim Weight

(Dimensionalized Weight) Determined by calculating length x width x height and dividing by 166. Charged when actual weight is less than the dim. weight.

Dock Receipt

When cargo is delivered to a steamship company at the pier, the receiving clerk issues a dock receipt.

Documents Against Acceptance (D/A)

Instructions given by  a shipper to a bank indicating that documents transferring title goods should be delivered to the buyer (or drawee) only  upon the buyer’s acceptance of the attached draft.

DOT

Department of Transportation

Draft (or Bill of Exchange)

An unconditional order in writing from one person (the drawer) to another (the drawee), directing the Drawee to pay a specified amount to a named Drawer at a fixed or determinable future date.

Drawback

A U.S. customs law that permits an American exporter to recover duties paid on imported foreign raw materials or components included in products that are subsequently exported out of the United States.

Drawee

The individual or firm on whom a draft is drawn and who owes the stated amount to the drawer.

Dry Lease

The rental of a “clean” aircraft without crew, ground staff or supporting equipment.

DST

The acronym meaning “double stack train” service, which is the transport rail between two points of a trainload of containers with two containers, one on top of the other, per chassis.

d.w.

Deadweight (tons of 2,240 lbs.)

d.w.c.

Deadweight for cargo

E.A.O.N.

Except as otherwise noted.

EDI or EDIFACT

Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport, from the UN-backed electronic data interchange standards body, to create electronic versions of common business documents that will work on a global scale. One digital document under consideration, the International Forwarding and Transport Message will do the jobs of six different electronic messages currently in use.

Empty Leg

Results from an aircraft primarily chartered outbound having cargo capacity inbound or vice versa. A cheap form of airfreight.

Endorsement in Blank

Commonly used on a bank check, an endorsement in blank is an endorsement to the bearer. It contains only the name of the endorser and specifies no particular payee. Also, a common means of endorsing bills of lading dawn to the order of the shipper. The bills are endorsed “For…” (see Bill of Lading, Order).

Eurodollars

U.S. dollars on deposit outside of the United States to include dollars on deposit at foreign branches of U.S. banks, and dollars on deposit with foreign banks.

“Ex”

Signifies that the quoted price applies only at the indicated point of origin (e.g. “price ex factory” means that the quoted price is for the goods available at the factory gate of the seller).

Ex. B.L.

Exchange bill of lading.

Export Broker

The individual who brings together buyer and seller for a fee, eventually withdrawing from any transaction.

Export Declaration

A form to be completed by the exporter or their authorized agent and filed in triplicate by a carrier with the United State Collector of customs at the point of exit. It serves a twofold purpose:

  1. Primarily, it is used by the U.S. Bureau of Census for the compilation of export statistics on United States foreign trade (for this reason an export declaration is required for practically all shipments from the United States to foreign countries and the United States possessions, except for mail shipments of small value, or for those of a non commercial character);
  2. The declaration also serves as an export control document because it must be presented, together with the export license, to the United States Customs at the port of export. If the goods may be exported under general export license, this fact must be stated on the export declaration.

Export License

A document secured from a government, authorizing an exporter to export a specific quantity of a particular commodity to a certain country. An export license is often required if a government has place embargoes or other restrictions upon exports. See General Export License.

Export Trading Company

A corporation or other business unit organized and operated primarily for the purpose of exporting goods and services, or of providing export related services to other companies.

Express

Premium-rated service for urgent deliveries.

EXW

Ex works. Same as the former “Ex Works.”

FAK

: Freight All Kinds – uniform airline charging scale applying to a number of commodities; as opposed to SCR (Specific Commodity Rate) applying to one commodity only.

FAS (free alongside ship)

Seller is responsible for inland freight costs until goods are located alongside the vessel/aircraft for loading. Buyer is responsible for loading costs, ocean /air freight and marine/air insurance.

Fathom

(Nautical) Conversion equivalents: 6 feet; 1.83 meters.

F.C.L.

Full container load, full car load.

F.c.s.

Free of capture and seizure.

f.c.s.r.c.c.

Free of capture, seizure, riots and civil commotions.

F.&.D.

Freight and demurrage.

FEU

Forty foot equivalent

FIATA

International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations.

Fifth Freedom Flight

Where cargo is carried by an airline between two countries in neither of which it is based.

F.i.b.

Free in bunkers; free into barge.

Flag Carrier

An airline of one national registry whose government gives it partial or total monopoly over international routes.

FOB (free on board)

Seller is responsible for inland freight and all other costs until the cargo has been loaded on the vessel/aircraft. Buyer is responsible for ocean/air freight and marine/air insurance.

F.o.d.

Free of damage

Folded

An article folded in such a manner as to reduce its bulk 33 1/3% from its normal shipping cubage when not folded.

Force Majeure

The title of a standard clause found in marine contracts exempting the parties for nonfulfillment of their obligations by reasons of occurrences beyond their control, such as earthquakes, floods or war.

Foreign Trade Zone

A free port in the United Stated divorced from Customs authority but under Federal control. Merchandise, except that which is prohibited, may be stored in the zone without being subjected to the United States tariff regulation. Also called Free Trade Zone.

Foreign Trade Zone Entry

A form declaring goods which are brought duty free into a Foreign Trade Zone for further processing or storage and subsequent exportation.

Forwarder, Freight Forwarder, Foreign Freight Forwarder

An independent business that dispatches shipments for exporters for a fee. The firm may ship by land, air, or sea, or it may specialize. Usually it handles all the services connected with an export shipment; preparation of documents, booking cargo space, warehouse, pier delivery and export clearance. The firm may also handle banking and insurance services on behalf of a client. The U.S. forwarder is licensed by the Federal Maritime Commission for ocean shipments.

Foul Bill of Landing

A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were damaged when received.

F. P.A.A.C. F.p.a. (A.C.)

Free of Particular Average, American Conditions-(Marine Insurance Term). The American form of clause commonly used, as distinguished from that used by the English underwriters. Under the American clause the underwriter does not assume responsibility for partial losses unless caused by stranding, sinking, burning or collision with another vessel whereas under the English clause, the underwriter assumes responsibility for partial losses if the vessel be stranded, sunk, burnt or in collision even though such an event did not actually cause the damage suffered by the goods. Conditions (See F.P.A.A.C.).

F.P.A.

Free of Particular Average (Marine Insurance Term). A term used in marine insurance policies to indicate that while the underwriter is unwilling to assume liability for ordinary partial losses due to the peculiar qualities of the particular article or to its form of package, he is willing to bear partial losses, the direct result of stranding, sinking, burning, collision, or other named peril

Free Alongside

Quoted price includes the cost of delivering the goods alongside a designated vessel.

Free In (F.I.)

Cost of loading a vessel is borne by the charterer.

Free In and Out (F.I.O.)

Cost of loading and unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer.

Free of Capture and Seizure (F.C.& S.)

An insurance clause providing that loss is not insured if due to capture, seizure, confiscation and like actions, whether legal or not , or from such acts as piracy, civil war, rebellion and civil strife.

Free of Particular Average (F.P.A.)

A marine insurance clause providing that partial loss or damage is not insured American conditions (F.P.A.A.C.). Partial loss is not insured unless caused by the vessel being sunk, stranded, burned, on fire, or in collision. English conditions (F.P. A.E.C.). Partial loss not insured unless a result of the vessel being sunk, stranded, burned, on fire, or in collision.

Free Out (F.O.)

Cost of unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer.

Free Port

A port which is a foreign trade zone, open to all traders on equal terms; more specifically a port where merchandise may be stored duty-free, pending re-export or sale within that country.

Free Trade Zone

A port designated by the government of a country for duty-free entry of any non-prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, used for manufacturing, within the zone and re-exported without duties being paid. Duties are imposed on the merchandise (or items manufactured from the merchandise) only when the goods pass from the zone into an area of the country subject to the Customs Authority.

Freight Forwarder

An individual or company , acting on the behalf of a shipper, who arranges all necessary details of shipping and documentation for a manufacturer or exporter, which includes employing the services of a carrier of carriers.

Gang

Group of stevedores usually 4 to 5 members with supervisor assigned to a hold or portion of the vessel being loaded or unloaded.

Gateway

Port of entry into a country or region.

GATT

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, a multilateral treaty intended to help reduce trade barriers and promote tariff concessions.

GCR

General Cargo Rate. The basic tariff category which was introduced to cover most air cargo now covers only a minority, the remainder being under SCR or class rates.

General Average

When damage to cargo on board a vessel exceeds carrier’s insurance, carrier will release cargo only with an acceptance agreement to claim only a general percentage of all the damage sustained.

General Export License

Any of various export licenses covering export commodities for which validated export licenses are not required. No formal application or written authorization is needed to ship exports under a general export license.

General Order

Government contract warehouse for the storage of cargoes left unclaimed for ten working days after availability. Unclaimed cargoes are auctioned publicly after one year.

Gross Weight

Entire weight of goods, packing, and container,, ready for shipment.

G.R.Wt./G.W.

Gross Weight.

GSA

General Sales Agent acting on behalf of an airline. Usually Broker or Forwarder.

Harmonized Code

An internationally accepted and uniform description system for classifying goods for customs, statistical and other purposes.

Harmonized Systems

A key provision of the recently signed trade bill, effective Jan. 1, 1989, that establishes international uniformity for product classifications. Most U.S. Trading partners adopted it a year earlier, and it was drafted in Brussels a decade ago with U.S. representatives’ input. In essence, it is a new tariff schedule in that it changes methods of rating some items.

Hatch

The cover of – or opening- in the deck of a vessel, through which cargo is loaded.

Heavy Lifts

Freight too heavy to be handled by regular ship’s tackle.

Heavy Lift Vessel

Specifically designed to be self sustaining with heavy lift cranes, to handle unusually heavy and/or out-sized cargoes.

House Air Waybill

An air waybill issued by a freight consolidator. See Air Waybill.

Hub

A central location to which traffic from many cities is directed and from which traffic is fed to other areas.

Hundredweight (cwt.)

A short ton hundredweight = 100 pounds. Long ton hundredweight = 112 pounds.

Husbanding

Term used by steamship lines, agents, or port captains who are appointed to handle all matters in assisting the master of the vessel while in port to obtain bunkering, fresh water, food and supplies, payroll for the crew, doctors appointments, ship repair, etc.

IATA

International Air Transport Association.

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organization. A specialized agency of the United Nations, with headquarters in Montreal. Its task is to promote general development of civil aviation (e.g. aircraft design and operation, safety procedures, contractual agreements).

ICC

International Chamber of Commerce

I.C.T.F.

Intermodal Container Transfer Facility, an on-dock facility for moving containers from ship to rail or truck.

IFF

Institute of Freight Forwarders.

Igloo

Container designed to occupy full main deck width of carrying aircraft.

Import License

A certificate, issued by countries exercising import controls, that permits importation of the articles stated in the license. The issuance of such a permit frequently is connected with the release of foreign exchange needed to pay for the shipment for which the import license has been requested.

In-Bond

A customs program for inland ports that provide for cargo arriving at a seaport to be shipped under a Customs bond to a more conveniently located inland port where the entry documents have been filed. Customs clears the shipment there, and the cargo is trucked to its destination, which normally is close to the inland port.

Independent Action

A move by whereby a member of a shipping conference elect to depart from the specific service rates set forth by the conference, giving ten calendar days notice of such action. The conference member’s new schedule of rate, or rates, officially takes effect no later than ten days after receipt of notice by the conference.

Inducemen

Some steamship lines publish in their schedules the name of a port and the words by inducement in parentheses. This means the vessel will call at the port if there is sufficient amount of profitable cargo available and booked.

Inland Carrier

A transportation line which hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland points.

I.p.a.

Including particular average

Inspection Certificate

A document certifying that merchandise (such as perishable goods) was in goods condition immediately prior to shipment.

Integrated Carrier

Forwarder which uses own aircraft, whether owned or leased, rather than scheduled airlines.

Intellectual Property

Ownership of the legal rights to possess, use or dispose of products created by human ingenuity, including patents, trademarks and copyrights.

Interline

Mutual agreement between airlines to link their route network.

Intermeddle

Referring to the capacity to go from ship to train to truck, or the like, the adjective generally refers to containerized shipping or the capacity to handle same.

ISO

International Standards Organization also referred to as the International Organizational for Standardization.

Incoterms

A codification of terms used in foreign trade contracts that is maintained by the International Chamber of Commerce.

Incremental Cost to Export

The additional costs incurred while manufacturing and preparing a product for export ( e.g., product modifications, special export packaging and export administration costs.) This does not include the costs to manufacture a standard domestic product, export crating and transportation to the foreign market.

Irrevocable Letter of Credit

A letter of credit with a fixed expiration date that carries the irrevocable obligation of the issuing bank to pay the exporter when all of the terms and conditions of the letter of credit have been met.

J.&W.O.

Jettison and washing overboard

JETSAM

Goods from a ship’s cargo, or parts of its equipment, that have been thrown overboard to lighten the load in time of danger, or to set a stranded ship adrift.

Joint Venture

A form of business partnership involving joint management and the sharing of risks and profits between enterprises sometimes based in different countries.

Just-In-Time (JIT)

The principle of production and inventory control in which goods arrive when needed for production or use.

K.D.C.L.

Knocked down in carload lots

KD Flat

An article taken apart, folded, or telescoped to reduce its bulk at least 66 2/3% below its assembled size.

K.D.L.C.L.

Knocked down in less than carload lots.

Knock Down (KD)

An article taken apart, folded or telescoped in such a manner as to reduce its bulk at least 33 1/3% below its assembled bulk.

Knot (Nautical)

The unit of speed equivalent to one nautical mile, or 6,080.20 feet per hour or 1.85 kilometers per hour.

L/C – Letter of Credit

A document issued by a bank per instructions by a buyer of goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms. Issued as revocable or irrevocable.

L. & D.

Loss and damage

Lagan

Cargo or equipment to which an identifying marker or buoy is fastened, thrown over-board in time of danger to lighten a ship’s load. Under maritime law if the goods are later found they must be returned to the owner whose marker is attached; the owner must make a salvage payment.

Lash

Lighter Aboard Ship (see Lighter)

Lash Vessel

Designed to load internally, barges specifically designed for the vessel. The concept is to quickly float the barges to the vessel (using tugs or ships wenches) load these barges through the rear of the vessel, then sails. Upon arrival at the foreign port, the reverse happens; Barges are quickly floated away from the vessel and another set of waiting barges quickly are loaded. Designed for quick vessel turn-around. Usually crane-equipped; handles mostly breakbulk cargo.

Lay Days

The dates between which a chartered vessel is to be available in a port for loading of cargo.

L.C.L.

Less than container load; less than car load.

Legal Weight

The weight of the goods plus any immediate wrappings which are sold along with the goods: e.g., the weight of a tin can as well as its contents. (See Gross Weight).

Less than Truck Load (LTL)

Rates applicable when the quantity of freight is less than the volume or truckload minimum weight.

Letter of Credit

A document issued by a bank at a buyer’s request honoring debt obligations to the seller upon receipt of the document.

Lighter

An open or covered barge equipped with a crane and towed by a tugboat. Used mostly in harbors and inland waterways.

Lighterage

The cost of loading or unloading a vessel by means of barges alongside.

Liner

The word “liner” is derived from the term “line traffic” which denotes operation along definite routes on the basis of definite, fixed schedules; a liner thus is a vessel that engages in this kind of transportation, which generally involves the haulage of general cargo as distinct from bulk cargo.

Liquidation

The finalization of a customs entry.

Livestock

Common farm animals.

Lkg. & Bkg.

Leakage and breakage.

Load Factor

Capacity sold as against capacity available, expressed as a percentage.

Lo/Lo

The acronym meaning “lift-on,lift-off,” denoting the method by which cargo is loaded onto and discharged from an ocean vessel, which in this case is by the use of a crane.

l.t. or l.tn.

Long ton (2240 lbs.).

Ltge.

Lighterage

LTL

Less than truckload

Letter of Credit – payment by sight draft

The exporter receives guaranteed payment from the confirming bank in the U.S. upon presentation of the sight draft and documents required by the letter of credit.

Manifest

A list of the goods being transported by a carrier.

Marine Insurance

An insurance which will compensate the owner of goods transported overseas in the event of loss which cannot be legally recovered from the carrier.

Maritime Administration (MARAD)

A US government agency, while not actively involved in vessel operation, administers laws for maintenance of merchant marine for the purposes of defense and commerce.

Mark

As used on containers in foreign trade, a symbol or initials shown together with the port of importation and the final destination, if different. Example: A.G. y Cia., Bogota via Barranquilla. Marks are registered at appropriate customs houses; they also appear on bills of lading and invoices. In domestic trade, it is common to mark containers with the name and address of the recipient, but this is rarely done in foreign trade.

Marking

Every article of foreign origin, or its container, imported into the United States shall be permanently marked in a conspicuous place in a manner which would indicate to the ultimate purchaser the English name of the country of origin of the article.

Mate’s Receipt

Receipt of cargo by the vessel, signed by the mate (similar to dock receipt).

Measurement Ton

The measurement ton (also known as the cargo ton or freight ton) is a space measurement, usually 40 cubic feet or one cubic meter. The cargo is assessed a certain rate for every 40 cubic feet or 1 cubic meter it occupies.

Min. B/L

Minimum bill of lading

M.M.

Mercantile marine

MFN (Most Favored Nation)

Designation for countries which receive preferential tariff rates. This is no longer the best tariff structure available.

M/R

Mate’s Receipt

M/T

Metric Ton (2204 lbs.)

mt.

Empty

M/V or M.V.

Motor vessel

MW

Minimum weight factor

National Carrier

A flag carrier owned or controlled by the state.

n.e.m.

Not elsewhere mentioned (English)

n.e.s.

Not elsewhere specified

Nested

Three or more different sizes of an article are placed within each other so that each article will not project above the next lower article by more than 33 1/3% of its height.

Nested Solid

Three of more different sizes of an article are placed within each other so that each article will not project above the next lower article by more than 1/4 inch.

Net Terms

Free of charters’ commission

Net Weight

(Actual Net Weight) Weight of goods alone without any immediate wrappings; e.g., the weight of the contents of a tin can without the weight of the can.

NMFC

National Motor Freight Classification

No Objection Certificate

Document provided by scheduled or national airlines of many countries declaring no objection to a proposed charter flight operated by another airline. Often demanded by government authorities before they grant permission for a charter flight to take place.

No Objection Fee

Sum of money paid by a charter airline normally to a scheduled airline in order that it waives its right of objection to its government, thus allowing a charter to take place. Tantamount to a bribe. The amount is usually a fixed percentage of the gross cost of a charter. Common practice in the Middle East and Africa.

N.O.E.

Not otherwise enumerated

N.O.H.P.

Not otherwise herein provided

N.O.I.

Not more specifically described

N.O.I.B.N.

Not otherwise indicated by number; Not otherwise indicated by name.

Non-Scheduled Flight

See scheduled flight.

Non-Tariff Barriers (NTB)

Economic, political, administrative or legal impediments to trade other than duties, taxes and import quotas

Non-Vessel Operation Common Carrier (NVOCC)

An F.M.C. registered cargo consolidator of small shipments in ocean trade, generally soliciting business and arranging for or performing containerization functions at the port. These carriers issue their own bill of lading referred to as a house bill of lading.

N.O.S.

Not otherwise specified

N.T.

Net tons

Ocean Bill of Lading

A receipt for cargo in transit, and a contract between the exporter and an ocean carrier for transportation and delivery of goods to a specified party at a specified foreign destination. Issued after the vessel has sailed and the cargo has been entered in the ship’s manifest.

O.D.

Outside diameter

ODS

An acronym commonly used for the term “operating differential subsidy,” which is a payment to an American-flag carrier by the federal government to offset the difference in operating costs between US and foreign vessels.

Off-Line

Describes an airline that sells in a market to which it does not operate. An Off-Line carrier will use another operator to link with its network.

O/N

Order notify; own name

O/o

Order of

Open Account

A high-risk trade arrangement in which goods are shipped to a foreign buyer without guarantee of payment.

Open Policy

A cargo insurance policy that is an open contract; i.e., it provides protection for all an exporter’s shipments afloat or in transit within a specified geographical trade area for an unlimited period of time, until the policy is cancelled by the insured or by the insurance company. It is “open” because the goods that are shipped are also detailed at that time. This usually is shown in a document called a marine insurance certificate.

Original   Equipment Manufacturers (OEM accounts)

Customers who incorporate the exporter’s product into their own merchandise for resale under their own brand names.

O/R

Owner’s risk

O. & R.

Ocean and Rail

O.r.b

Owner’s risk or breakage

O.R. Det.

Owner’s risk of deterioration

O.R.F.

Owner’s risk of fire or freezing

O.R.L.

Owner’s risk of leakage

O.R.W.

Owner’s risk of becoming wet

O.S. & D.

Over, short and damage

Ocean Bill of Lading

A receipt for cargo in transit, and a contract between the exporter and an ocean carrier for transportation and delivery of goods to a specified party at a specified foreign destination. Issued after the vessel has sailed and the cargo has been entered in the ship’s manifest.

O.D.

Outside diameter

ODS

An acronym commonly used for the term “operating differential subsidy,” which is a payment to an American-flag carrier by the federal government to offset the difference in operating costs between US and foreign vessels.

Off-Line

Describes an airline that sells in a market to which it does not operate. An Off-Line carrier will use another operator to link with its network.

O/N

Order notify; own name

O/o

Order of

Open Account

A high-risk trade arrangement in which goods are shipped to a foreign buyer without guarantee of payment.

Open Policy

A cargo insurance policy that is an open contract; i.e., it provides protection for all an exporter’s shipments afloat or in transit within a specified geographical trade area for an unlimited period of time, until the policy is cancelled by the insured or by the insurance company. It is “open” because the goods that are shipped are also detailed at that time. This usually is shown in a document called a marine insurance certificate.

Original   Equipment Manufacturers (OEM accounts)

Customers who incorporate the exporter’s product into their own merchandise for resale under their own brand names.

O/R

Owner’s risk

O. & R.

Ocean and Rail

O.r.b.

Owner’s risk or breakage

O.R. Det.

Owner’s risk of deterioration

O.R.F.

Owner’s risk of fire or freezing

O.R.L.

Owner’s risk of leakage

O.R.W.

Owner’s risk of becoming wet

O.S. & D.

Over, short and damage

P.A.

Particular average

Paired

Port of Arrival Immediate Release and Enforcement Determination. A U.S. Customs program that allows entry documentation for an import shipment to be filed at one location, usually an inland city, while the merchandise is cleared by Customs at the port of entry, normally a seaport. May be ineffective with certain types of high-risk cargoes, such as quota-regulated textiles or shipments from drug-production regions. Cities where there is a natural flow of cargo are actually “paired” in the program; e.g., Atlanta, an inland city, is linked with Savannah, a seaport. Tested in ’87-’88, it became generally available in mid- ’88.

Pallet

Load carrying platform to which loose cargo is secured before placing aboard the aircraft.

Pallet Extender

Fashionable metal or cardboard device to increase pallet capacity.

Paperless Release

Under ABI, certain commodities from low-risk countries not designated for examination may be released through an ABI-certified broker without the actual submission of documentation.

Part Charter

Where part of an airline’s scheduled flight is sold as if it were a charter in its own right (Often wrongly used as a synonym for split charter).

Part Load Charter

Where a part of an aircraft’s load is discharged at one destination and a part of it at another. This is distinct from a split charter where a number of consignments are carried to the same destination. Inbound, part loads are treated as single entity charters under the regulations of most countries.

Particular Average

Partial loss or damage to goods.

Perils of the Sea

Most losses covered by a marine insurance policy come within the comprehensive expression “perils of the sea,” which refers to damage caused by heavy weather, strandings, strikings on rocks or on bottom, collision with other vessels, contacts with floating objects, etc.

Perishables

Any cargo that loses considerable value if it is delayed in transportation (Usually refers to fresh fruit and vegetables).

Phytosanitary Inspection Certificate

A certificate issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture indicating that a shipment has been inspected and is free of harmful pests and plant diseases.

Pilferage

As used in marine insurance policies, the term denotes petty thievery, the taking of small parts of a shipment, as opposed to the theft of a whole shipment or large unit. Many ordinary marine insurance policies do not cover against pilferage, and when this coverage is desired, it must be added to the policy.

Pivot Weight

That weight of a ULD above which a higher tariff applies; in effect, an incentive to maximize cargo density.

Place

A particular street address or other designation of a factory, store, warehouse, place of business, private residence, construction camp or the like, at a point.

Place of Rest

The term “Place of Rest” as used in the Containerized Cargo Rules means that location on the floor, dock, platform or doorway at the CFS to which cargo is first delivered by shipper or agent thereof.

Point

A particular city, town, village or other community or area which is treated as a unit for the application of rates.

Port Authority

A government body (city, county or state) which in international shipping maintains various airports and/or ocean cargo pier facilities, transit sheds, loading equipment warehouses for air cargo, etc. Has the power to levy dockage and wharfage charges, landing fees, etc.

Port Marks

An identifying set of letters numbers and/or geometric symbols followed by the name of the port of destination, which are placed on export shipments. Foreign government requirements may be exceedingly strict in the matter of port marks.

Port of Discharge

Port where vessel is off loaded and cargo discharges.

Port of Entry

A port at which foreign goods are re-admitted into the receiving country.

Port of Loading

Port where cargo is loaded aboard the vessel lashed and stowed.

Power of Attorney

A document that authorizes a customs broker to sign all customs documents on behalf of an importer.

Pre-Advice

Preliminary advice that a letter of credit has been established in the form of a brief authenticated wire message. It is not an operative instrument and is usually followed by the actual letter of credit.

Prepaid Freight

Generally speaking, freight charges both in ocean and air transport may be either prepaid in the currency of the country of export or they may be billed collect for payment by the consignee in his local currency. However, on shipments to some countries freight charges must be prepaid because of foreign exchange regulations of the country of import and/or rules of steamship companies or airlines.

Pre-Slung Cargo

Cargo shipped already in a cargo sling or net. Usually prepared and loaded at pier ready for arrival of vessel and subsequent loading (i.e. coffee in bags, coconut shells, etc).

Price Quotation/Proforma Invoice

An invoice prepared by the seller in advance of shipment that documents the cost of goods sold, freight, insurance, and other related charges. It is often used by the buyer to secure a letter of credit, an import license or a foreign currency allocation.

Prima Facie

Latin, “on first appearance.” A term frequently encountered in foreign trade. When a steamship company issues a clean bill of lading, it acknowledges that the goods were received “in apparent good order and condition” and this is said by the courts to constitute prima facie evidence of the conditions of the containers; that is, if nothing to the contrary appears, it must be inferred that the cargo was in good condition when received by the carrier.

Proforma

When used with the title of a document, the term refers to an informal document presented in advance of the arrival, or preparation of the required document, in order to satisfy a customs requirement.

Pro Number

A number assigned by the carrier to a single shipment, used in all cases where the shipment must be referred to. Usually assigned at once.

Proof of Delivery

Add-on service in express market, delivered either by phone or courier. Often offered free.

Protest

Customs form 19 allows for a refund of an overpayment of duty if filed within 90 days of liquidation.

P.W.

Packed weight

R. & C.

Rail and Canal

R/C

Reconsigned

r. & c.c.

Riots and civil commotions

r.c.c. & s.

Riots, civil commotions and strikes

Rebate

A deduction taken from a set payment or charge. As a rebate is given after payment of the full amount has been made, it differs from a discount which is deducted in advance of the payment. In foreign trade, a full or partial rebate may be given on import duties paid on goods which are later re-exported.

Reciprocity

A practice by which governments extend similar concessions to one another.

Red Clause Letter of Credit

A letter of credit that allows the exporter to receive a percentage of the face value of the letter of credit in advance of shipment. This enables the exporter to purchase inventory and pay other costs associated with producing and preparing the export order.

REFG.

Refrigerating; Refrigeration

Regs.

Registered Tonnage

Retaliation

Action taken by a country to restrain its imports from another country that has increased a tariff or imposed other measures that adversely affects the firsts country’s exports.

RORO (ROLL ON-ROLL OFF)

Direct drive on/drive off wheeled vehicles on specially-designed ocean-going vessels.

Route

an established air passage, from point of departure to terminating station.

Royalty

a charge on charter flights levied by some governments before traffic rights are granted. Sometimes called a “no objection fee.” Usually a fixed proportion of a total charter value.

Salvage

Rescue of goods from loss at sea or by fire; also, goods so saved, or payment made or due for their rescue.

Sanitary and Health Certificate

A statement signed by a health organization official certifying the degree of purity, cleanliness, or spoilage of goods, and the health of live animals.

Schedule B

Refers to “Schedule B, Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign Commodities Exported from the United States.” Being replaced under the Harmonized System.

Scheduled Flight

Any service that operates to a set timetable.

SCR

Specified Commodity Rate. Applied to narrowly specified commodities. Usually granted on relatively large shipments. Theoretically is of limited time duration.

Sector

Distance between two ground points within a route.

Self-Sustaining

Vessel has its own cranes and equipment mounted on board for loading/unloading. Used in ports where shore cranes and equipment are lacking.

Service

The defined, regular pattern of calls made by a carrier in the pick-up and discharge of cargo.

Service Contract

A contract between a shipper and an ocean carrier of conference, in which the shipper makes a commitment to provide a minimum quantity of cargo over a fixed time period.

Set Up

Articles in their assembled condition.

S. & F.A.

Shipping and forwarding agent.

Shipment

Freight tendered to a carrier by one consignor at one piece at one time for delivery to one consignee at one place on one bill of lading.

Shipper

Term used to describe exporter. Mostly manufacturing companies.

Shipper’s Export Declaration

A form required by the Treasury Department and completed by a shipper showing the value, weight, consignee, destination, etc., of export shipments as well as Schedule B identification number.

Ship’s Manifest

An instrument in writing containing a list of the shipments comprising the cargo of the vessel.

Ship’s Tackle

All rigging, etc., utilized on a ship to load or discharge cargo.

Short-Shipped

Cargo manifested but not loaded.

Single Entry Charter

A non-scheduled flight carrying the cargo of one shipper.

Sight Draft

A draft payable upon presentation to the drawee. Compare date draft and time draft.

S.I.T.

Stopped in Transit

Site

A particular platform or location for loading or unloading at a place.

S.L. & C.

Shipper’s Load and Count

S.L. & T.

Shipper’s Load and Tally

S/N

Shipping Note

S.O.L.

Ship Owner’Liability

Split Charter

Where a number of consignments from different shippers are carried on the same non-scheduled aircraft. Under U.K. regulations a non-scheduled flight chartered by a single forwarder or agent on behalf of a number of shippers is still classified as a split charter. Under U.S. regulations, a forwarder chartered flight is classified as a single entity although it can consolidate.

S.R

Shipping Receipt

S.R. & C.C.

Strikes, riots, and civil commotions.

SS

Steamship; steam powered ship (Steam driven turbines)

Standard International Trade Classification (SITC)

A standard numerical code system developed by the United Nations to classify commodities used in international trade.

S.tn.

Short ton

Steamship Agent

A duly appointed and authorized representative in a specified territory acting in behalf of a steamship line or lines and attending to all matters relating to the vessels owned by his principals.

Steamship Line

Company is usually composed of the following departments; vessel operations, container operations, tariff department, booking, outbound rates, inward rates and sales. the company can maintain its own in country U.S. offices to handle regional sales, operations and/or other matters or appoint steamship agents to represent them doing same. Some lines have liner offices in several regions and have appointed agents in others.

Stowage

The lacing of cargo in a vessel in such a manner as to provide the utmost safety and efficiency for the ship and the goods it carries.

Strikes, Riots, and Civil Commotions

An insurance clause referring to loss or damage directly caused by strikers, locked-out workmen, persons participation in labor disturbances, and riots of various kinds. The ordinary marine insurance policy does not cover this risk; coverage against it can be added only by endorsement.

Subsidy

An economic benefit granted by a government to producers of goods or services, often to strengthen their competitive position.

Sue & Labor Clause

A provision in marine insurance obligating the assured to do things necessary after a loss to prevent further loss and to act in the best interests of the insurer.

Surety Bond

A bond insuring against loss or damage or for the completion of obligations.

Surety Company: An insurance company

S.W.

Shipper’s weights

Tally Sheet

List of cargo, incoming and outgoing, checked by Tally clerk on dock.

Tare Weight

The weight of the container and/or packing materials only – excluding the weight of the goods inside the container.

Tariff

A general term for any listing of rates, charges, etc. the tariffs most frequently encountered in foreign trade are: tariffs of the international transportation companies operating on sea, on land, and in the air; tariffs of the international cable, radio, and telephone companies; and the customs tariffs of the various countries, which list goods that are duty free and those subject to import duty, giving the rate of duty in each case. There are various classes of customs duties.

T.B.L.

Through bill of lading

Temperature Controlled Cargo

Any cargo requiring carriage under controlled temperature.

TEU

Twenty foot equivalent.

Third Freedom Right

Where cargo is carried by an airline, from the country in which it is based, to a foreign country.

T.I.B.

Temporary Import Entry.

Time Draft

A draft that matures in a certain number of days, either from acceptance or date of the draft.

Title, Passing

The passing of title to exported goods is determined in large measure by the selling terms. For example, if an exporter sells goods c.i.f he may be presumed to pass ownership and tender of documents. However, he may ship on a bill of lading drawn to his own order, to prevent the buyer from gaining possession of the goods until the draft is paid or accepted. In this case he retains a security title to the goods; that is, a title for security purposes only, until the financial arrangement is carried out. Caution: depending on the laws of the buyer’s country, you may not be able to force passage of title without payment having been received or the buyer having accepted delivery of the goods or a clear understanding by the buyer being understood and accepted.

TL

Truckload

Ton:

Freight rates for liner cargo generally are quoted on the basis of a certain rate per ton, depending on the nature of the commodity. This ton, however, may be weight ton or a measurement ton.

Ton-Deadweight

Indicates the carrying capacity of the ship in terms of the weight in tons of the cargo, fuel, provisions and passengers which a vessel can carry.

Ton-Displacement

The weight of the volume of water which the fully loaded ship displaces.

Ton-Kilometer

Measure of airline freight capacity.

Ton-Registered

Indicates the cubical contents or burden of a vessel in tons of 100 cubic feet. The space within a vessel in units of 100 cubic feet.

Tracking

A carrier’s system of recording movement intervals of shipments from origin to destination.

Trade

A term used to define a geographic area or specific route served by carriers.

Traffic Conferences

Rate-fixing machinery operated by IATA.

Tramp

A tramp is a vessel that does not operate along a definite route on a fixed schedule, but calls at any port where cargo is available.

Transferable Letter of Credit

A letter of credit that allows all or a portion of the proceeds to be transferred from the original beneficiary to one or more additional beneficiaries.

Transshipment

The transfer of a shipment from one carrier to another in international trade, most frequently from one ship to another. In as much as the unloading and reloading of delicate merchandise is likely to cause damage, transshipments are avoided whenever possible.

Transport Index

The number expressing the maximum radiation level in a package of ULD.

Truckload

Truckload rates apply where the tariff shows a truckload minimum weight. Charges will be at the truckload minimum weight unless weight is higher.

Trust Receipt

Release of merchandise by a bank to a buyer for manufacturing or sales purposes in which the bank retains title to the merchandise.

Turnkey Project

Capital construction projects in which the supplier (contractor) designs and builds the physical plant, trains the local personnel on how to manage and operate the facility and presents the buyer with a self-sustaining project (all the buyer has to do is “turn the Key”).

UKACC

United Kingdom Air Cargo Club.

ULD

Unit Load Device. Pallet or Container for freight.

Unclean Bill of Lading

A bill containing reservations as to the good order and condition of the goods, or the packaging, or both. Examples: “bags torn;” “drums leaking;” “one case damaged;” “rolls chafed.”

Unitisation

The packing of single or multiple consignments into ULDs or pallets.

Universal Postal Union

Organization which negotiates international mail charges.

VAT (Value-Added Tax)

A sales or consumption tax which the end user pays. Typically, this is a “hidden” tax, added to the list price of the goods in question.

Valuation Charges

Transportation charges assessed shippers who declare a value of goods higher than value of carrier’s’ limits of liability.

Ves.

Vessel

Visa

An invoice properly validated by the Minister of Trade in regard to quota entries.

Volume Weight

Used when calculating air freight when the size of the carton is greater than the average weight, calculated by multiplying the length times the width times the height and dividing by 166.

W.A.

With Average

Warehouse Receipt

A receipt of commodities deposited in a warehouse, identifying the commodities deposited. It is non-negotiable if permitting delivery only to a specified person or firm, but it is negotiable if made out to the order of a person or firm or to a bearer. Endorsement (without endorsement if made out to bearer) and delivery of a negotiable warehouse receipt serves to transfer the property covered by the receipt serves to transfer the property covered by the receipt. Warehouse receipts are common documents in international banking.

Warehouse-to-Warehouse

A clause in marine insurance policy whereby the underwriter agrees to cover the goods while in transit between the initial point of shipment and the point of destination, with certain limitations, and also subject to the law of insurable interest. When it was first introduced, the warehouse-to-warehouse clause was extremely important, but now its importance is diminished by the marine extension clauses, which override its provisions.

War Risk

The possible aggressive actions against a ship and its cargo by a belligerent government. This risk can be insured by a marine policy with a risk clause.

War Risk Insurance

Insurance issued by marine underwriters against war-like operations specifically described in the policy. In former times, war risk insurance was taken out only in times of war, but currently many exporter cover most of their shipments with war risk insurance as a protection against losses from derelict torpedoes and floating mines placed during former wars, and also as a safeguard against unforeseen warlike developments. In the United states, war risk insurance is written in a separate policy from the ordinary marine insurance; it is desirable to take out both policies with the same underwriter in order to avoid the ill effects of a possible dispute between underwriters as to the cause (marine peril or war peril) of a given loss.

Weigh:

  • Gross – The weight of the goods including packing, wrappers, or containers, internal and external. The total weight as shipped.
  • Net – The weight of the goods themselves without the inclusion of any wrapper.
  • Tare – The weight of the packaging or container.
  • Weight/Measurement Ton – In many cases, a rate is shown per weight/measurement ton, carrier’s option. This means that the rate will be assessed on either a weight ton or measurement ton basis, whichever will yield the carrier the greater revenue. As example, the rate may be quoted on the basis of 2,240 pounds or 40 cubic feet or of 1 metric ton or 1 cubic meter.
  • Weight Ton – There are three types of weight ton; the short ton, weighing 2,000 pounds; the long ton, weighing 2,240 pounds; and the metric ton weight 2,204.68 pounds. The last is frequently quoted for cargo being exported from Europe.

Weight, Legal

Net weight of goods, plus inside packing.

Weight Load Facto:

Payload achieved as against available, expressed as a percentage. Cargo is frequently limited by volume rather than weight; load factors of 100% are rarely achieved.

Wet Lease

An arrangement for renting an aircraft under which the owner provides crews, ground support equipment, fuel and so on (of dry lease).

w.g.

Weight guaranteed

Wharfage

A charge assessed by a pier or dock owner against the cargo or a steamship company for use of the pier or dock.

W. & I.

Weighing and Inspection

With Average

A marine insurance term meaning that shipment is protected for partial damage whenever the damage exceeds a stated percentage.

Without Reserve

A term indicating shipper’s agent or representative is empowered to make definitive decisions and adjustments abroad without approval of the group or individual represented. See advisory capacity.

With Particular Average (W.P.A.)

An insurance term meaning that partial loss or damage of goods is insured. Generally must be caused by sea water. Many have a minimum percentage of damage before payment. May be extended to cover loss by theft, pilferage, delivery, leakage, and breakage.

W/M

Weight and/or measurement

W.P.A.

With Particular Average

W/R

Warehouse receipt

W.R.

War Risk

X Heavy

Extra Heavy

X Strong

Extra strong

XX Heavy

Double extra heavy

XX Strong

Double extra strong

Y/A

York-Antwerp Rules – A code of rules adopted by an international convention in 1890, amended in 1924 and again in 1950, for the purpose of establishing a uniform basis for adjusting general average. Certain nationalities decline to observe certain of the rules adopted. United States shipping interests generally abide by general rule “F” and numbered rules 1 to 15 and 17 to 22, inclusive and specifically set this forth in a Bill Of Lading Clause.

Yield

Revenue, not necessarily profitable, per unit of traffic.

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"Surpris"

Venant juste de créer une nouvelle sociéte, j'ai fait appel à Seafly services pour mon premier envoi.

J'ai choisi cette sociéte par les prix avantageux qu'ils proposaient par rapport à leurs concurrents mais je dois avouer que je me posait des questions sur la qualité de leurs services.

J'ai pourtant été agréablement surpris car le staff était très compétent et professionel, toujours disponible en cas de besoin et toujours prêt a gérer les imprévus.

 

Thomas

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I have worked with seafly services for my second international moving and I must say I'm very satisfied with their work.
Even though things didn't always go as planned, they always tried to find a way to fix the situation and keep us satisfied.
They were all very attentive and cleared all the doubts that we had through the moving process.

If you are looking for a serious and qualified freight forwarder, ship with Sea Fly services!

 

-Anna

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"Door to door services"

Thanks Seafly,

I would recommend this company for low volume/weight, just ask for quotation and compare.

Much more competitive than DHL, UPS or even EMS.

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"remerciement"

Venant de débuter dans le domaine de l’import-Export entre la Thaïlande et la France, je cherchais une structure qui me permetrait de mener à bien mon projet tout en élargissant mes connaissances dans ce domaine. Une structure qui devait me conseiller et m’accompagner dans les démarches à suivre. Commençant par de petits partenariats avec les fournisseurs, je ne disposais pas de gros volumes et les prix proposés dépassaient mon budget

Je suis alors tombé sur le site Sea Fly Services. L’entreprise propose du transport aérien ou maritime. j’ai contacté l’agence et on m’a alors informé des démarches à suivre. 

Tout au long de notre collaboration, j’ai reçu des informations pratiques sur le suivi de mes livraisons ainsi que les droits de douane. Je me suis senti en confiance dès la première livraison de marchandise qui est arrivée dans les temps.

Je recommande vivement Sea Fly par son accueil, sa réactivité et son expertise. 

Hervé. N

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"Great job"

Great Job !! I would recommend Seafly services as the best freight forwarder in Bangkok. 

 

Mark

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"Super boulot!!"

Merci à François et à son équipe de nous avoir accompagné tout au long de cette expédition. Je recommande Seafly à tout ceux qui sont désireux d'avoir un partenaire sérieux, efficace et flexible.

Katia

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